The Royal Society, the UK's national academy of science, has released a new report according to which, a new group of countries, lead by China and followed by others including Brazil and India, are emerging as major scientific powers to rival the traditional 'scientific superpowers' of the US, Western Europe and Japan.
The report also identified some rapidly emerging scientific nations not traditionally associated with a strong science base, including Iran, Tunisia and Turkey. It emphasised the growing importance of international collaboration in the conduct and impact of global science and its ability to solve global challenges such as energy security, climate change and biodiversity loss.
The report, Knowledge, Networks and Nations: Global scientific collaboration in the 21st century, analysed a wide variety of data, including trends in the number of scientific publications produced by all countries. It found that China's growing share in the total number of articles published globally is now second only to the long-time scientific world leader, the US.
The publication data analysed by the report showed changes in the share of the world's authorship of research papers between the periods 1993-2003 and 2004-20082. The report notes that the US' share of global authorship has fallen from 26 percent to 21 percent. China has risen from sixth to second place, with its share of authorship rising from 4.4 percent to 10.2 percent. The UK remains stable in the rankings at third place, although its share of authorship has fallen slightly from 7.1 percent to 6.5 percent.
The Royal Society report also analysed citation data (records of the levels at which researchers are citing each others' work in their research). Citations are often used as a means of evaluating the quality of publications, as recognition by an author's peers indicates that the scientific community values the work that has been published. In both time periods, the US leads the ranking, with the UK in second place. However, both have a reduced share of global citations in 2004-2008, compared to 1999-2003. The rise of China is also shown in the data, although the rise does not mirror the rapidity of growth seen in the nation's investment or publication output.
The report found that science is becoming increasingly global, with research undertaken in more and more places and to a greater extent than ever before. In addition to the meteoric rise of China and, to a lesser extent, Brazil and India, the report also identified a number of other rapidly emerging scientific nations. These include Turkey, Iran, Tunisia, Singapore and Qatar.
The report investigated global collaboration, finding that today over 35 percent of articles published in international journals are internationally collaborative, up from 25 percent just fifteen years ago. International collaboration is growing for a variety of reasons including, most importantly, a desire to work with the best people (who may be based in increasingly divergent locations) and the growing need to collaborate on global issues, as well as developments in communication technologies and cheaper travel. Beyond the intuitive benefits of international collaboration, the report illustrated a clear correlation between the number of citations per article and the number of collaborating countries (up to a tipping point of ten countries), illustrating the value of engaging in international collaboration in terms of increasing the impact of research.
Finally, the report considered the role of international scientific collaboration in addressing some of the most pressing global challenges of our time, concentrating on the IPCC, CGIAR, the Gates Foundation, ITER and efforts to deploy carbon capture and storage technology. It looked at the strengths and shortcomings of these models to provide lessons for how international scientific collaboration might be better deployed in future.
Publication and citation data for the report was produced by and analysed in collaboration with scientific publisher Elsevier using Scopus citation and abstract data of global peer-reviewed literature.
STM publisher Elsevier, Netherlands, has announced a strategic relationship between First Consult and Cleveland Clinic to provide physician-author support of content for First Consult. First Consult is an evidence-based resource integrated into the clinical workflow to deliver trusted medical information at the point-of-care. Through this collaboration, Cleveland Clinic physicians will now be able to provide ongoing updates and reviews of First Consult medical topics.
First Consult's content is enhanced through the direct contribution of medical topics by Cleveland Clinic medical experts into First Consult's peer-review editorial process. This collaboration expands on an already established relationship between Elsevier and Cleveland Clinic. The Clinic currently provides point-of-care Continuing Medical Education (CME) credit to users of Elsevier's First Consult and MD Consult, a clinical reference tool utilised by more than 2,000 healthcare organisations and 95 percent of all US medical schools.
As physicians increasingly turn to the Internet for clinical information, the relationship between Elsevier and Cleveland Clinic helps ensure that the information they receive is current, relevant and accurate, thus improving overall patient care. Instead of relying on the unproven information available widely on the Internet, Elsevier sees physicians gravitating more to the evidence-based clinical content provided by online tools such as First Consult.
First Consult is projected as an ideal resource for quickly answering questions related to screening, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the majority of the medical conditions responsible for office visits and inpatient admissions. First Consult is also available as an iPhone/iPad app, available through free download from the Apple App Store.
The American Chemical Society (ACS) has announced the expansion of its mobile application, ACS Mobile, to tablet and smartphone devices with Google's Android operating system.
Launched initially in 2010 for Apple iOS devices, including an optimised version for the iPad tablet, ACS Mobile allows scientists to keep current with a live, multi-journal stream of new peer-reviewed research content (Articles ASAPSM) published across the Society's portfolio of 39 scholarly research journals, including the flagship Journal of the American Chemical Society. The app is augmented by 'Latest News' from Chemical and Engineering News (C&EN) - the Society's industry-leading magazine and preferred source of online news for its more than 163,000-member professionals.
Along with numerous positive user reviews and testimonials, ACS Mobile recently received the PROSE (Professional and Scholarly Excellence) award for both the 'Best New eProduct in Physical Sciences and Mathematics,' and 'Best New eProduct/Innovation in ePublishing' from the Professional and Scholarly Publishing Division of the Association of American Publishers.
It has been observed that Android-powered smartphones are propelling much of the growth in the smartphone market. A February 2011 Gartner report ranks Android phones second in worldwide sales with 22.7 percent of the market.
A video demonstration of the features and functionality of ACS Mobile can be accessed at http://www.acsmobile.org. The Android version of the application is currently available for individual purchase and download via the Android Market. The Apple version can be purchased directly from the iTunes Store.
Serials Solutions, a US-based provider of tools and services for libraries and a business unit of ProQuest LLC, and HathiTrust have announced an agreement to enable full-text search of the entire HathiTrust collection of digitised scholarly books from the Summon web-scale discovery service. HathiTrust is a partnership of major academic and research libraries collaborating in digital library initiative to preserve and provide access to the published record in digital form.
Researchers and faculty at institutions with the Summon service will now be able to use the library's own website to search the full text of its print books and serials, and discover materials relevant to their research topics. This collaboration makes the full text of much of the library's physical collection as easily searchable as its electronic content.
Soon researchers at any library with the Summon service will effectively search the full text of more than 8.4 million total volumes in the HathiTrust collection, including more than 4.6 million book titles and over 200,000 serials titles - nearly three billion pages. Once users locate the information they need using the Summon search box, they can access public domain materials directly from the HathiTrust, as well as be directed to the digital and physical content in the collections of their respective libraries.
Designed by Serials Solutions, a unit of ProQuest, the Summon service provides users with a simple and compelling starting point to search the full breadth of a library's content. The service is already adopted by more than 200 academic and research libraries worldwide.
This agreement is expected to provide considerable benefits for researchers. From aggregation of information to collaboration across the research process, the ability to search the full text of any document preserved in the HathiTrust collection, as well as their library's other collections, will unlock new possibilities for discovering material in a range of resources, including books.
Yahoo! Research, the central advanced research organisation of global Internet brand Yahoo! Inc., has released a study report on Twitter usage across the world. According to the study, a mere 20,000 Twitter users steal almost half of the spotlight on Twitter, which now incorporates a billion tweets every week.
The study, titled 'Who Says What to Whom on Twitter', found that only 0.05 percent of the social network's user base attracts attention. The authors analysed 260 million tweets with URLs and found that about 50 percent of the tweets consumed were created by what they called 'elite' users who fall into four categories - media, celebrities, organisations and bloggers. 'Ordinary' users include everyone else.
Similar to findings of previous studies, the researchers for this one concluded that Twitter resembles an information-sharing hub rather than a social network. They note that top generators garner huge follower tallies but do not follow their content consumers in return.
This study claims to be different from previous studies in that it delves deeper into the production and flow of tweets. By studying the flow of information among the five categories, the latest analysis seeks to shed new light on some old questions of communications research.
The US Supreme Court has reportedly refused to hear an appeal, letting stand a lower court's decision that digital music should be treated as a licence. Though the artist at the centre of the suit is rapper Eminem, thousands of older artists who have not released an album in decades could become some of the biggest beneficiaries of the case.
The courts ruling that downloads, such as those from iTunes, are music 'licences,' not sales, made a big difference to Eminem because his 1995 contract entitles him to a full 50 percent of license revenue, and only 12 - 20 percent of sales. According to a New York Times report, several other artists, signed before the year 2000, are in the same boat. The fast-evolving law around digital downloads has reportedly caught the music industry asking for different treatment in different situations.
The legal distinction between whether digital content is a "sale" or a "licence" is reportedly hard to understate. Earlier in 2010, in the Vernor v. Autodesk case, the same appeals court that considered the Eminem case found that software sales weren't really sales at all - they were actually a licence.
The entertainment industry cheered that ruling then. Digital content means that essentially everything is being turned into software. The ruling, therefore, makes it much more likely that copyright owners will be able to maintain control of digital content even after they sell it. This will allow copyright owners to prevent re-sale and impose other restrictions on how the content is used.
Eminem's record label, the Universal Music Group, has emphasised that this is a narrow ruling that only applies to Eminem's contract. Other artists may have similarly constructed deals. It is expected that they will also examine legal avenues to make similar claims.
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Open access (OA) publisher InTech has announced the launch of its new OA journal - Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology.
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology will publish peer-reviewed papers at the forefront of nanoscale science and technology, bringing together the science and applications of nanoscale and nanostructured materials with an emphasis on synthesis, fabrication, processing, characterisation, and applications of materials containing nanometric dimensions.
Besides the fact that the journal will be an Open Access journal that allows free access to innovative research to everyone, no publishing fees will be charged to authors to publish their work in the journal. Operating under a 'free for all' model, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology seeks to bring important advantages to authors and readers.
The first issue of the journal is expected in June 2011. The deadline for submission of papers to be included in the first issue is scheduled for May 10, 2011. A preliminary list of topics includes graphene, silicene, semiconductor droplet epitaxy and bio-nanotechnology materials.
Technology media company TechTarget, Inc., US, has signed an agreement to acquire the websites, product offerings, and events associated with Computer Weekly and its sister channel-targeted brand MicroScope from Reed Business Information Ltd. The transaction is expected to close by the end of April, subject to the conclusion of the Transfer of Undertakings Protection of Employees (TUPE) consultation process.
Since its founding in 1966, Computer Weekly has been the leading choice for UK Managers, Directors and CIOs monitoring the technology landscape. ComputerWeekly.com receives an average of 425,000 visits and 1 million page views each month. It has an associated email database of more than 165,000 subscribers, 42 percent of which are senior level IT managers.
MicroScope has a long history of helping advertisers to reach the value-added resellers (VARs) that influence the technology purchase decision-making process. This site receives more than 100,000 page views each month and maintains more than 15,000 email subscribers. The change in ownership to TechTarget represents the latest stage of an ongoing evolution of Computer Weekly, which has made aggressive investments in its online capabilities as its core audience has shifted its information consumption habits to the web. TechTarget will accelerate these investments by devoting all staff and future efforts towards the websites and events offerings.
The print versions of both Computer Weekly and MicroScope will be discontinued when the deal concludes at the end of April.
The two websites complement TechTarget's established offerings in the region, including SearchDataManagement.co.uk, SearchNetworking.co.uk, SearchSecurity.co.uk, SearchStorage.co.uk, and SearchVirtualDataCentre.co.uk, by giving advertisers new and easier ways to reach the key UK and European IT decision makers at the right moment in their purchasing decision cycles.
With the addition of Computer Weekly, TechTarget will also pursue new events in the IT space in addition to its existing Storage and Virtual Desktop events, and will expand on custom events already run by Computer Weekly.
To access our daily STM news feed through your iPhone, iPad, or other smartphones, please visit www.myscoope.com for a mobile friendly reading experience.
Healthcare information provider Wolters Kluwer Health (WK Health), US, has announced that Ozarks Medical Center has selected ProVation Order Sets, powered by UpToDate Decision Support, as the hospital's electronic order set solution.
ProVation Order Sets, powered by UpToDate Decision Support, is an easily customisable order set authoring and management solution that provides flexible integration into clinical processes to streamline the delivery of standardised care for improved patient safety, outcomes, clinician performance and regulatory compliance. Built upon ProVation Medical's clinician-designed technology platform, one of ProVation Order Sets' primary values is the continuous updates to clinical content and medical evidence, including direct links to UpToDate, the resource of choice for more than 400,000 clinicians.
Central to this capability is the One-Click Updates tool, which leverages UpToDate's Practice Changing Updates, which highlights new recommendations that could potentially change usual clinical practice. Enabled by a unique, structured approach to data management, One-Click Updates alerts end users to evidence that may trigger the need to modify particular order sets. It then enables users to review recommended updates and apply them in a single step across multiple order sets.
UpToDate covers more than 8,300 topics in 17 medical specialties and includes more than 97,000 pages of text and graphics, more than 385,000 Medline references and a drug database. Content is continuously reviewed and updated by physician editors and authors.
In addition to integrated links to UpToDate and other trusted sources of medical evidence, ProVation Order Sets offers the flexibility to link additional clinical resources based upon client needs and preferences. Further, to help facilities achieve the highest possible degree of automation, ProVation Order Sets features vendor-neutral mapping and export capabilities that allows for flexible integration into any facility or vendor EMR or CPOE system.
Medical publisher Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., US, has announced the launch of a bimonthly open access peer-reviewed journal, Shingles and PHN. Scheduled for launch in fall 2011, the journal will provide a much-needed authoritative source and central forum on research and clinical applications.
There are reportedly over 1 million new cases of shingles each year in the US alone. An outbreak of shingles is often followed by a disabling condition known as postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), which is difficult to treat and can have serious consequences. More than 1 in 3 people in the U.S. will develop shingles in their lifetime. Shingles is a painful skin rash caused by the varicella zoster virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox.
Shingles and PHN will explore all aspects of shingles and PHN, including studies of the virus; what causes the virus to reactivate; its actions on the human body; effective pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic acute treatment of shingles and long-term management of PHN; benefits and contraindications of the shingles vaccine; and implications for insurers and policymakers. The journal will include a broad range of scientific research and clinical studies with an impact across many fields including virology, epidemiology, infectious disease, neurology, dermatology, primary care, and policymakers to address this common and disabling condition.
The journal is under the editorial leadership of Dr. Barbara P. Yawn, Director of Research, Olmsted Medical Center, and Adjunct Professor, Family and Community Health, University of Minnesota. Dr. Yawn's research has provided some of the largest group of community-based shingles cases for which diagnosis has been confirmed by medical record review, and shingles complications have been explored.
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