This report, commissioned by BSN 4 and BSN 7, is concerned with the new ways in which open access journals can be editorialised. The transition to open access has accelerated in recent years. Several countries have established a legal framework to secure the depositing of articles in open archives (in France, a provision of this type is included in the Digital Bill). In May 2016, the Council of the European Union called for open access to be made a "default option" in all Member States by 2020.
A study has developed scenarios for transitioning Switzerland's scientific publication system towards Open Access (OA). It recommends a model that proposes a pragmatic and flexible way of making publicly funded research freely available at no charge and with no delay. The study was initiated by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) in collaboration with the funding programme 'Scientific Information' (SUC P-2) run by swissuniversities. In 2015, the libraries at Switzerland's higher education institutions paid a total of 70 million Swiss francs in licences and subscriptions to publishing houses in order to make more than 2.5 million scientific articles available. Researchers spent a further 6 million Swiss francs on article processing charges so they could have their results published in open access mode in a scientific journal. These figures were generated by an initial analysis of financial flows in the Swiss higher education system.
Open Access to research is a public benefit which enhances transparency, scientific integrity and rigour, stimulates innovation, promotes public engagement, and improves efficiency in research. The UK is widely recognised as being the leading nation in the Open Access and Open Data movements. This is both underpinned by, and underpins, the UK's position as second only to the USA as a leading research power. This document presents the background, evidence base and details of advice from Professor Adam Tickell, Provost and Vice-Principal, University of Birmingham and Chair of the Universities UK Open Access Coordination Group, to the Minister for Universities and Science, Jo Johnson MP, following his letter of request dated 22 July 2015. This paper does not cover Open Access monographs, other than to note that the UUK OA Coordination Group will convene a working group to make progress and further recommendations.
The authors found that there is a spectrum of discussion in the information studies literature: at one end, accidental discovery of unknown information is seen as a fundamental method of scholarly information seeking (Cooksey, 2004); at the other end, chance information encounters are rejected as having a useful role to play in academic practices at all (Gup, 1998). The purpose of this paper is not to take a position on that debate but to share some of what SAGE has learned about the dynamics of unplanned discovery and how information professionals can encourage this type of unplanned discovery to drive better research outcomes.
This report sketches the landscape of university-based not-for-profit publishing in Europe with a primary focus on open access publishing of journals. It aims to provide an understanding of the different types of initiatives in terms of size, operational and business models, technologies used, stakeholder involvement, concentration of scientific fields, growth, as well as regional characteristics. On account of the wealth and diversity of the different initiatives taking place in Europe and elsewhere, this report cannot be perceived as comprehensive. Rather, it points to important issues that need to be addressed, while gathering as much information as possible and highlighting particular cases of interest, which serve to illustrate the various points made.